Essay writing in English: Men’s Enemy in the world of Nature

Essay writing in English!

Men’s Enemy in the world of Nature

When a man is compared with the vast worlds that dwell in space, he seems insignificant like a leaf in a forest or a grain of sand by the seashore. He appears to be a contemptible little thing in comparison with the might and majesty of nature. But when we consider the high moral and spiritual stature that man can attain and when we look at man’s scientific achievements–the glory of our modern intellectual life–the greatness of man dawns upon us. He has measured the stars, harnessed the lightning. He has distilled from plants and minerals invaluable medicines to fight disease and ward off death. When we think of what man has accomplished in the domain of science, and creative arts, we thank God that we possess life, the possibilities of which are so great. But even then an attitude of humility is highly desirable. Man is still going on with his subjugation of nature. We have yet seen all things put under his feet. We see him in the midst of progress, carrying out the great purposes of his being. So vast and varied is the infinitude of nature that there are perhaps mysteries he will never fathom, problems he will never, and secrets he will never discover! At every step, we are conscious of our limitations in the face of overpowering nature. The forces of nature that he seeks to control overcome him in the end. Disease dogs his footsteps. Essay writing in English

Death laughs at his efforts to live. The Holy Ouran rightly says: “The human beings encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will.”

Let us begin with those enemies of mankind which are microscopic in size but cause ravages on a very large scale. A few years ago mosquitoes, flies, fleas, and related blood-sucking insects were considered by most people to be unworthy objects of serious study but it is now known that they are important factors in the spread of various diseases. In 1894, two Japanese doctors Yersin and Kitasto discovered the cause of the plague to be a particular bacillus which is bred in the blood of rats suffering from the disease. From the rats, the parasite is transmitted to human beings by fleas and insects. For three thousand years, the pestilence took its toll of human life. Over a quarter of the population Of Europe is believed to have been destroyed by bubonic plague in the 14th Century. The chain which connects the microbe and man has been revealed and by breaking this chain humanity has been delivered from a thraldom under which it has groaned for unknown ages. The disease has been practically exterminated from the world by the destruction of rats as well as by better housing and sanitation.

Malarial fever is one of the most terrible of tropical diseases and carries off more than a million people every year in India alone. When Sir Ronald Ross was carrying on investigations at Banglore to determine the cause of malaria.

He wrote the following pleading lines:

“In this, O Nature; yield, I pray, to me

I pace and pace and think and think and take.

The fevered hands and note down all I see

That some distant light may haply break.

The painful faces ask, can we not cure?

We answer, no, not yet, we seek the laws

O God, reveal through all this thing obscure

The unseen, small but million-murdering cause.”

The popular belief was that the disease was’ due to some kind of unwholesome vapor or miasma arising from wet, marshy places. Sir Ronald Ross proved that the germs of malaria are propagated from one sufferer to another by mosquitoes and flies. The remedy for the disease lies in stamping out the mosquito by searching its breeding places and destroying the larvae in them. By caring on a vigorous campaign against mosquitoes many very malarious places on earth have been made habitable, and prosperous townships are growing up in districts which formerly sustained only a few sickly and miserable inhabitants. It is thus scientifically proved that one of the deadliest insect-foes of man is the mosquito. It has a musical sound but it is very dangerous. It spreads malaria, filariasis, yellow fever, and other dangerous diseases. Essay writing in English

By his discoveries in the field of preventive inoculation, Louis Pasteur, the great French scientist, earned the eternal gratitude of humanity. Many thousands of cattle and sheep died annually of splenic fever known as anthrax. A formidable yearly tribute had to be paid to this mysterious scourge until enlightenment came through the labors of Louis Pasteur. He proved that the power of conveying anthrax was due to a bacillus and to it alone. Immunity from the fatal attacks of this disease was secured by preventive inoculation of a mild form of the virus.

For four centuries the narrow Isthmus of Panama was regarded as a white man’s grave. Yellow fever prevented the Spaniards, the French, or English from founding colonies there. When Ferdinand de Lesseps, the constructor of the Suez Canal, commenced cutting the canal through the Isthmus of Panama, the chief obstacle in his way was yellow fever. His men died like flies. Before the work was finally given up by the French, human life had been sacrificed for every cubic yard of earth excavated. Like malaria, yellow fever was found to be transmitted by a mosquito, though a different kind from that which conveys malaria. An army of sanitary officers was employed against the death-dealing mosquito with the result that yellow fever has been practically stamped out. By the death of a little grey gnat, a great engineering enterprise was made possible of realization. It was not a hostile army or political difficulties that obstructed work. It was an insect that raised a barrier of disease and death between endeavor and accomplishment.

The popular feeling regarding smallpox is clearly voiced by a saying in Germany that from love and smallpox none could escape. In his History of England, Macaulay, referring to the death of Queen Mary, daughter of James Il and wife of William Ill from the disease in 1694 says:

“The disease over which science has since achieved a succession of glorious and beneficial victories was then the most terrible of all the ministers of death. The havoc of the plague had been far more rapid; but the plague had visited our shores only once or twice within living memory and the smallpox was always present, filling the churchyards with corpses, tormenting with constant fears all whom it had not yet stricken, leaving on those whose lives it spared the hideous traces of its power, turning the babe into a changeling at which the mother shuddered and making the eyes and cheeks of the betrothed maiden objects of horror to the lover.”

Edward Jenner’s  Essay writing in English

Edward Jenner’s name is held in the highest reverence because he delivered mankind from the terrors of smallpox which had carried tens of thousands of men, women, and children every year and from which there seemed to be no possible escape. Jenner, the apostle of vaccination, revealed for the first time the possibilities of the preventive system of medicine.

Jenner, Pasteur, and Lister have rendered inestimable services to humanity by liberating them from smallpox, rabies, and the festering of wounds. The conquest Of disease is, undoubtedly, one of the brightest chapters in the story of human endeavor to master nature. But after all these marvelous attainments, there still remain vast areas of knowledge to be annexed. Cancer continues to be a challenge to scientists and humanity. Many thousands of cattle and sheep died annually of splenic fever known as anthrax. A formidable yearly tribute had to be paid to this mysterious scourge until enlightenment came through the labors of Louis Pasteur. He proved that the power of conveying anthrax was due to a bacillus and to it alone. Immunity from the fatal attacks of this disease was secured by preventive inoculation of a mild form of the virus. Essay writing in English

Isthmus of Panama

For four centuries the narrow Isthmus of Panama was regarded as a white man’s grave. Yellow fever prevented the Spaniards, the French, or English from founding colonies there. When Ferdinand de Lesseps, the constructor of the Suez Canal, commenced cutting the canal through the Isthmus of Panama, the chief obstacle in his way was yellow fever. His men died like flies. Before the work was finally given up by the French, human life had been sacrificed for every cubic yard of earth excavated. Like malaria, yellow fever was found to be transmitted by a mosquito, though a different kind from that which conveys malaria. An army of sanitary officers was employed against the death-dealing mosquito with the result that yellow fever has been practically stamped out. By the death of a little grey gnat, a great engineering enterprise was made possible of realization. It was not a hostile army or political difficulties that obstructed work. It was an insect that raised a barrier of disease and death between endeavor and accomplishment.Essay writing in English: Men’s Ene

The popular feeling regarding smallpox is clearly voiced by a saying in Germany that from love and smallpox none could escape. In his History of England, Macaulay, referring to the death of Queen Mary, daughter of James Il and wife of William Ill from the disease in 1694 says:

“The disease over which science has since achieved a succession of glorious and beneficial victories was then the most terrible of all the ministers of death. The havoc of the plague had been far more rapid; but the plague had visited our shores only once or twice within living memory and the smallpox was always present, filling the churchyards with corpses, tormenting with constant fears all whom it had not yet stricken, leaving on those whose lives it spared the hideous traces of its power, turning the babe into a changeling at which the mother shuddered and making the eyes and cheeks of the betrothed maiden objects of horror to the lover.” Essay writing in English

Edward Jenner’s name is held in the highest reverence because he delivered mankind from the terrors of smallpox which had carried tens of thousands of men, women, and children every year and from which there seemed to be no possible escape. Jenner, the apostle of vaccination, revealed for the first time the possibilities of the preventive system of medicine.

Jenner, Pasteur, and Lister have rendered inestimable services to humanity by liberating them from smallpox, rabies, and the festering of wounds. The conquest Of disease is, undoubtedly, one of the brightest chapters in the story of human endeavor to master nature. But after all these marvelous attainments, there still remain vast areas of knowledge to be annexed. Cancer continues to be a challenge to scientists and medical men. All that can be done at this stage of our knowledge is only a temporary symptomatic treatment of cardiac ailments and such diseases as paralysis, asthma, and epilepsy: Permanent therapy of these and several other diseases is still eluding the human grasp. Essay writing in English

While there are certain aspects of nature that are benevolent to man, there are others that are actively opposed to him. All through the ages, nature has been a challenge to man. By his wonderful intellect, man has, to some extent, conquered the forces of nature and the animal world. But there are still many animals, birds, insects, and plants that continue to be his powerful enemies.

Animal Kindom

In the animal kingdom, lions, tigers, leopards, wolves, jackals, and foxes are some of the outstanding animals that come under the category of the enemies of man. The lion is the king of beasts and the lord of the forest. But he is a cruel and ferocious creature. He is a terrible menace to travelers. He attacks horses, mules, donkeys, and cattle and even kills and eats men themselves.

The tiger is, perhaps, more to be feared than the lion. It is found nearly all over Asia and especially in India. It is cruel and cunning and kills animals even when it does not need food. The tiger uses its strength just as surely as the lion. In countries like India, hundreds of people and thousands of cattle are killed by tigers every year. If a tiger once tastes human blook, it becomes a confirmed man-eater and prowls about the human habitations at night in search of its booty. Essay writing in nglish

Wild leopards are more cunning than lions and tigers. They can climb trees which the lion and the tiger cannot. A cruel leopard simply kills for the sake of killing. It attacks and kills sheep, women, children, and men who are unarmed. Essay writing in English

The jackal is a great enemy of man. He is useful because he eats up the filth of the villages but he is also a great thief and causes serious damage to fields and crops. The jackals are very fond of melons. They steal into the fields of the farmers and eat as many melons as they can make free with. Essay w riting in English

Another enemy of man in the world of nature is the wolf. When wolves are hungry and food is hard to find, they chase horses and men. They are terribly rapacious, cruel, and swift.

Byron describes them in the following words in Mazeppa’s Ride:

 

“By night I heard them on the track

Their troop came upon our back

With their long gallop, which can tire

The hound’s deep hate, and hunter’s fire.”

 

Wolves very often carry off children with them. In America, there is a species of wolf that is a great curse for the farmers and kills their lambs and poultry on a ruthlessly large scale.

Everyone knows that the fox is the most cunning of all animals, But it is not only cunning and handsome, it is also very cruel. If a fox gets a chance, it kills scores of fowls though it needs only one or two for its food. Although the fox does not bite very hard, yet its bite is dangerously virulent and several men have gone mad as a result of the wound caused by •the bite of a fox.

There are also some birds that are the pronounced enemies of man. Parrot is one of them. It is a very pretty bird but it does great damage to the fruit by nibbling it with its sharp, pointed beak.

The rats, mice, and snakes are also dangerous enemies of man. The snake with its venomous bite deprives a man of his life. The rats and mice burrow into the earth and eat up the roots of crops and plants. Essay writing in English

Man’s greatest enemies are in the world of little insects. They are more to be dreaded than any other living being. The diseases which some of them bring in their train have already been mentioned. Essay writing in English

The most harmful of insects are the locusts. They breed on a large scale and come out in swarms to cause terrible havoc. They attack the foliage of trees and completely ruin fruit trees and crops. When they come, the sky is overcast as if with a black cloud. They leave behind them wastelands with bare branches, spreading ruin and desolation in their wake.

The flies are the greatest pests in the house. They spread disease by poisoning our food and contaminating milk and other foodstuffs. In certain districts of Central and Southern Africa, thousands of cattle and animals die yearly of IvKhat is known as fly disease. This disease is carried from a sick to a healthy animal by the bite of a tsetse-fly an insect only slightly larger than an ordinary house-fly. Domestic animals that enter fly-districts are seized with fever and they almost invariably die. Books of African travel are full of records of horses, teams of oxen, and herds of native cattle having been destroyed by tsetse-fly and on one occasion a native army was effectually routed by incautiously crossed the country.

In the plant world, there are several poisonous plants such as deadly nightshade, henbane, and hemlock. If a person eats the fruit of these plants, he runs the risk of losing his life. Then there are drugs of addiction, opium, and hashish which produce the moral and social crippling of man. There are certain plants that are associated with horror and mystery and are believed to be in the jungles of Africa. It is said that there are trees in the African forests that entangle traveling persons in their branches and squeeze them to death. But we do not know how far this is true.

Sometimes it so happens that natural phenomena militate against

the welfare of man and he finds himself utterly helpless. He may boast of his scientific achievements but can he ever stop an earthquake? Isn’t he helpless when one severe but short}ived tremor shakes the very foundations of his house and buries all the inmates under-the debris in Instant? What can he do against the devouring progress and the cruel gush of the flood-waters? Essay writing in English

Charles Darwin has expounded the theory of the struggle for existence in his Origin of Species. As man is the supreme creation of God, he has met some of the challenges of nature successfully. This. accounts for his partial domination over nature. But there are several domains of nature in the form of disease and death which have not so far yielded to man. God reigns supreme in the universe and man can Only encompass that knowledge which He in His infinite wisdom considers him fit to receive.

(AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A PARKER PEN)

With apologies to Joseph Addison, the author of Adventures of a Shilling.

Central Superior Sen’ices Exantination, 1956

It seems that old age is creeping in upon me. I cannot run as fast as I did in my youth and I have started slobbering like a child. Who would guess that this Mr. Parker of today is no other than Mr. Parker of twenty years back? Donned in a royal blue suit and a cap of the same color I looked handsome, elegant, and smart. It is indeed, pleasant to indulge in these reminiscences of my youthful days when I was hale and hearty and full of life and vigor.

 

I do not at all remember anything of my infancy and boyhood days. I suppose that that time was too uneventful and prosaic to have left any deep impression upon me. I recollect, however, that one day lying in my bed I felt a sudden desire to go out and see the world and get acquainted with the different actors who play their part on the stage of life. My reflections were suddenly disturbed by a young voice very near me saying, “How much does this Parker cost, Sir?” It seemed to address my guardian towards whom I nursed a deep-rooted aversion. He was in the bad habit of giving me a harsh scrub every morning with a yellow towel which he always kept at hand. Before answering the voice, he pulled me out of my soft bed and giving me a hasty scrub with that hateful towel, placed me on the counter. I was gently picked up by a young man, whose voice, I guess, I had heard a few moments before. He was a tall, lank fellow dressed in a threadbare suit of black which fitted him very ill. The elbows of his coat were worn out and the hat which he held in his hand was of a drab, dull color. He examined me for some time by turning me over in his hand once or twice. ‘i How much does this Parker cost, Sir’?” he once again asked shyly. “Rupees 25, Sir”, replied my guardian, and lowering his head, he looked at me with a sly twinkle in his eye. The young man turned to go. His shoulders stooped a little and his gait was awkward. His head was lowered and disappointment was writ large on every feature of his face. He had gone a few steps when my guardian called him back. “Young man,” said he, glancing at the boy’.s suit and cap, “I’ll charge you twenty.” The boy blushed at a significant glance. and answered, “Yes, I think 1 can afford to pay Rupees twenty’, and saying this he placed the required amount on the counter. I was put back in the box and taken away from my dreadful guardian. Essay writing in English

The journey was dark but when I was taken out of the box, I discovered that I was in a small garret. The furniture here was very scanty. There was a small bed in the corner. Under the window stood a table near which were placed two rickety chairs. The room was cold; there was no fire to diffuse light or warmth in it. The only light in this bare and cold but neat garret was that of a small candle. My master was moving here and there as if putting things in order. Then going to his bed, he took out a diary from beneath his pillow, and pulling the chair near the table he sat down as if to write. There was a small bottle that contained a blue liquid. My master dipped my mouth into it. I was being treated to wine, wonderful wine, the pleasant taste of which was intoxicating and making me heady. It infused a new wave of enthusiasm into my body and a fresh vigor into my soul.

I felt like warning the people to beware of Parker:

“For he on honey-dew hath fed

And drunk the milk of paradise.”—Kubla [Chan: Coleridge

Overflowing with ebullition, I was seized by my master, who began to write. There were unusual grace and swiftness in my movement and although I felt like singing, my master forced me to cry instead. He seemed to be more of a philosopher for this is what he wrote: “Today I went and bought a Parker pen which cost me Rs. 20. Now, I am only left with Rs. .5 which won’t be enough for the whole month. I have to pay the landlady and I don’t think she will now be persuaded to wait. Yet there is no room for self-pity after what I have seen today. What a wretch I am to consider myself as the most miserable person going about when there are many people poorer than I! On my way back, I went to my aunt’s house. All the children were crowded in a small room. Uncle was staring into space as usual and seemed insensible to the cries of the little ones. Poor aunt! to have on her weak shoulders the burden of a sick husband and four children. The younger one was crying desperately for milk and all the efforts of my aunt to quieten him were proving unsuccessful. At last, she took him to the window and pointed out to the beautiful carriage that was passing beneath it. The beautiful bay horses, the well-dressed coachman, and the pretty lady fanning herself attracted the infant’s attention and he s!9pped squealing. ‘O, wonderfully rich, thanks to your grandeur which flabbergasts our children and stops them from crying.’ I felt myself to be a mean and selfish wretch who had spent Rs. 2() on a pen when that very amount could have bought some food for the children. I will no longer be selfish; I shall part with this pen and help my aunt.” He stopped writing and placed me back in the box. The next morning, I was again taken out. A short, stout woman stood in the doorway. My master handed me over to her and said: “I’ll be very grateful to you Mrs. Naj if you sell this for me to the grand lady you know. I will then have some money left after paying you the rent.” I was thus transferred in a few days to a new mistress who is kind-hearted paid Rs. 30 to the landlady for me. She was an extremely well-dressed and smart young woman. She usually wore taffeta or muslin gowns which smelt of eau-de-cologne. Every fortnight shen would take me out of her drawer and sit down to write letters to her fiance. This is what she wrote one day:

“My dear Robert,

I would have felt extremely lonely after your departure had it not been for Jack. He is a pleasant companion and I spend most of my time with him. We also go out together every evening for a walk around the park: You can’t imagine how friendly both of us are! I am sure you’ll like him when you meet him–.” I won’t tell else she wrote, for, after all, it is not gentlemanly to divulge the Ime secrets of others. Essay writing in English

A few days afterward I was lying on the table when suddenly the door of my mistress’ room opened. A handsome young man entered hurriedly, banged the door behind him, and stood facing my mistress in an angry attitude. His nostrils dilated and he shot a furious look around the room. “Where is that despicable Jack of yours? How is it that you are flirting with ether men behind my back?” “Are you in your senses, Robert?” asked mv mistress. “Here is Jack and I believe you have no reason to be jealous of him.” She pointed out to a small, white poodle who was sitting cuddled up at her feet. On seeing the pet, the young man burst into a loud and hearty laugh. Sly mistress also joined him though I could not guess what it was that both found so amusing in the appearance of poor Jack.

Every morning. Gaston a servant of the house came to clean my mistress’s room. He would also gae me u scrub his duster. One day he came in as usual. Atter my bath. he looked furtively around and seeing that the doer was closed and no one was around, he pulled the chair and sat down. Then he took out a small diary and picking me up in his rough hands he began to write.

“Yesterday night I was reading the diary of a gentleman, Samuel Pepys. I found it very interesting and this is what I thought to myself. -Gaston, you should also write a diary and make yourself famous like Samuel Pepys.’ So I went to the market and bought this diary for myself. I did not buy a pen because I thought I would use Miss Pauline’s when I come to clean her room. This pen is not a beautiful one. It is blue, a color which I dislike intensely; moreover, there are a few scratches here and there; anyhow it will serve my purpose.” This unflattering estimate of Gaston hurt my pride. In revenge, I stopped my flow of ink. The ignorant fellow held me tightly and jerked my body up and down with all the energy he could command. This maltreatment was too much for my delicate constitution. I felt a sudden and terrible pain in my stomach. Gaston continued his cruel operation with the result that my digestive system was seriously upset and I vomited the beautiful blue Wine on the floor. Gaston hurriedly put me back and began to wipe the floor. Essay writing in English

Since then I have never been able to regain my wonderful health. I could not assimilate the ink properly and began to slobber like a child. One day my mistress gave me to Gaston with the words: “I don’t know what has happened to my pen, Gaston. It has started leaking profusely Essay writing in English